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Key stage 1 maths tests

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Test administration instructions and mark schemes are also provided. Key stage 1 maths tests. This is a beautiful addition to primary school education and a good foundation for mathematics assignments in high school. Key stage 1 tests: mathematics test materials Key stage 1 mathematics tests were administered in schools in May Test administration Author: Standards And Testing Agency. Crafting Brilliant Sentences NEW - KS3 Maths Now Key Stage 3 Science Key Stage 3 Science for AQA GCSE Science 9-1 AQA Collins Classroom Classics AQA GCSE English Language and English Literature 9-1 Collins GCSE Maths AQA A-level Sociology Knowing Religion Knowing History; Revision. This will support pupils in the KS1 and KS2 (Key Stage 1 and 2) programme for 5 to 11 year olds.

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This is the Stage One Manual. Including assessment packs, quizzes, activity sheets and more on topics like number and place value, addition. Covering topics like times tables, properties of 2D and 3D shapes, estimating, measuring and recording results, fractions, decimals, mental maths and more, your child will find a variety of resources in our year 4 maths worksheets. NFER is the leading independent provider of research insights in education with a particular focus on Accountability, Assessment, Classroom Practice, Education to Employment, School Workforce, Systems and Structures, School Funding and Social Mobility. IXL's personalised skill recommendations encourage each student to address gaps in understanding, move on to more challenging skills and explore new topic areas. Progress in Understanding Mathematics (PUMA) is a standardised, curriculum-linked suite of tests designed for whole-class use and for pupils of all abilities.

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1 2020 national curriculum tests Key stage 1 57%
2 Key Stage 1 SATs, A Guide for Parents 8%
3 KS1 Maths SATS Practice Papers: Pack 1 (for the 2020 tests 16%
4 Oxford Maths for Australian Schools 78%
5 Logical Reasoning Test - 6 Essential Tips & Practice Tests 77%
6 Maths Made Easy - MME - Revision Tuition and Exams 82%
7 FREE! - Year 1 Maths Assessment Overview (teacher made) 55%
8 Teach-ICT KS3 Computer Science 43%

Year 4 Maths Printable Worksheets - Primary Leap

Key Stage Three Maths SAT Tests KS3 Maths Revision April 18th, 2020 - KS3 Maths tests and old SAT papers can make excellent revision tools to help students identify weak areas which require more revision Key Stage 3 SAT Maths Exam Tests KS3 Sat Maths Exam Tests 2020 Level 3 5 Paper 1 Question Level 3 5 Paper 2 Explore our new GCSEScience page We ve added exam questions by topic for each. For Key Stage 3 and GCSE Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Geography. Find out more about MyMaths. Key Stage 1 – Revision Quizzes that are FUN. KeyMaths3 UK gives you the tools to assess maths skills of students aged 6 years to 16 years 11 months and assist in intervention planning. My son has improved his attitude towards maths.

Key birds v Robots - Maths Battle

These puzzles can also be found in MathSphere: It's All Figured Out! Also, you have an idea about the informal and formal letter format. Separate tests are available for lower to middle attainers (Pi – Theta) and middle to higher attainers (Theta – Delta). Main points 4 2. Changes for 2020/20 5 2.1 NCA tools website replacement 5 3. Important dates 6 4. The purposes of assessment 8 4.1 Different forms of assessment 8 4.2 Data and teacher workload 8 5. Making statutory teacher assessment judgements 10 5.1 Statutory teacher assessment 10 5.2 Pupil can statements 10 5.3 Evidence 11 5.4. We recommend using past papers by the same awarding body as your course and test. Hit the Button is an interactive maths game with quick fire questions on number bonds, times tables, doubling and halving, multiples, division facts and square numbers.

Functional Skills Maths (Levels 1 and 2) - England

Within KS1 Maths you will find resources, activities and online @school assessment tests that will help children revise and develop the subject of Maths at Key Stage 1 level The resources in this KS1 Maths classroom area help children to develop their knowledge of the different areas of Maths through mental and oral activities. Nagaland, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Meghalaya and Mizoram where it will be conducted on second statureday of november every year. When The Sun checked today, we also found free books that were suitable for secondary school children in years seven and eight (ages 12 and 13). Works with iPads, iPhones and Android, Blackberry, Macs and PCs. Q&A: Sats debate - BBC News pop over to this website. Our Key Stage 3 tests are designed to help you see how your students are engaging with mathematics and performing relative to each other; they should not be used to predict future GCSE grades and we won't offer indicative grade boundaries, as these could not currently be reliable.

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KSOL 11 Plus Tuition - Helping your child pass the 11 plus

Secondary Checkpoint Mathematics Progression Tests – The. Sats are the popular name given to the national curriculum tests that pupils are required to sit in the final year of primary school, at the age of 10 or 11. The attainment. KS1 SATs Maths Assessments. It covers children between the ages of 5 and 7 in Years 1 and 2, and sets out which subjects have to be taught. KS1 – Year 2 Science KS1 – Year 1 English – New Curriculum, KS1 – Year 2 English – New Curriculum, Key Stage 1 Phonics screening check More Key Stage 1 Resources Key Stage 1 SAT English Exam Tests KS1 assessment standards Year 1 Revision Year 2 Revision KS1 Online Maths Tests. Section 2: Key changes - 2020 Key stage 1: assessment and.

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Skills Forward – Initial & Diagnostic Assessments / ePortfolio

There may be more than one way to solve a number sequence question [example]. Uniquely, the series offers three tests for each primary school year, to monitor pupils' progress term by term, and provides reliable, predictive and diagnostic information. Then encoding, shifting the alphabet forward three places, is the same as adding three to your starting number.

2020 national curriculum tests Key stage 1 - SATs Papers Guide

Paper 2: mathematical fluency, problem-solving and reasoning, worth 35 marks and taking 35 minutes, with a break if necessary. And 2020 level 2 maths tests and prepare for your exam. Candidates can download the NDA answer key of Maths and GAT from this page. I specialize in prealgebra, algebra 1 & 2, geometry, trigonometry, precalculus, calculus, and psat/sat & act prep; Power maths ks1 and ks2 are recommended by the dfe, having met the ncetm's criteria for high-quality textbooks, and have been judged as "fully delivering a mastery approach"; Woodlands junior kent sch uk homework mountains. Students learn through quizzes and short videos, using our mobile app or other online devices. Our range of assessment tests covers key KS2 maths curriculum topics such as Addition and Subtraction, Arithmetic, Reasoning, Geometry and Statistics, organised by category.

Key Stage 1 (KS1) Maths, Science, English: Fun Revision

KS1 Maths Tests and Revision https://eldiesel21.ru/download/?file=993. KS1 quizzes written by teachers for years 1 and 2 of the curriculum. Maths CE paper 4 Download. View Demo Login Login. Jane Callahan, Primary School Teacher "I am using the Key Stage 2 SATs practice papers to help my daughter in the run-up to her test. Learning to Count is Fun!

stuff that needs to be added (tl;dr at the bottom)

Blocks

  • Give any existing common building block in the game (terracotta, concrete, Netherrack, etc.) a slab/staibrick/cracked brick/pillapolished/etc. variant
  • Chests/bookshelves/etc. for all wood types (partially implemented with signs, buttons, and pressure plates)
  • Furnaces/etc. for all stone types (partially implemented with blackstone buttons/pressure plates/etc.)
  • Any stone/cobblestone based items work like the full block does (e.g.: stone stairs/etc. become cobblestone stairs/etc. when mined, cobblestone stairs/etc. become stone stairs/etc. when smelted, stone stairs/etc. stay as stone stairs/etc. when silk touch is used, etc.)
  • Add NBT data to certain blocks (only block entities can store NBT information)
  • Add any gold version of existing iron blocks (e.g.: gold hoppers, gold chains, gold bars, etc.)
  • Fake Netherite blocks/any other expensive block (a survival friendly way to use the Netherite/etc. block texture without the high cost)
  • Craftable/mine-able End portal blocks
  • Make blackstone renewable in a similar fashion to cobblestone or basalt (i.e. blackstone generator)
  • Add any missing soul fire variants (e.g.: white soul fire jack o' lanterns, etc.)
  • Lava-logged/glass-filled/filler blocks
  • Storage block for charcoal
  • Glass doors/trapdoors
  • Rope/rope blocks/rope ladders
  • Rotten flesh blocks
  • Ash blocks (most commonly suggested for the Nether)
  • End quartz
  • Crystal blocks
  • Bamboo planks/blocks
  • Mud blocks/bricks/etc.
  • Darkstone/any block/item/etc. that cancels out light/produces negative light/etc.
  • Lava sponges
  • Warped wart and crimson wart, used to craft warped Nether bricks and crimson Nether bricks, respectively, as well as any other common, generic, or obvious uses for them (e.g. a use in potions that acts different from Netherwart, fortresses made of the brick blocks, etc.)

Building Improvements and Decoration

Limitations often encourage builders to come up with creative solutions, such as chairs made from stairs or slabs.
  • Fake/empty bookshelves
  • Sideways banners/flags
  • Horizontal glass panes/fences/walls/etc.
  • Leads can be placed sideways on fences to make "rope fences"
  • Custom paintings/drawing paintings
  • More banner patterns
  • Candles (made with wax/beeswax, either behaves like sea pickles, or just another typical light source)
  • Carpet or snow layers placed over stairs/slabs/walls/etc. changes to fit them exactly
  • Carpets can be stacked up when placed similar to snow layers, either with mixed colors or only the same color
  • Adjustable light blocks and/or invisible light source blocks
  • Book storage in bookshelves
  • Allow armor stands to have arms in survival
  • Colored/stained lanterns/redstone lamps/torches/any light source (partially implemented with Soul Torches and Soul Fire Lamps, being blue)
  • Using dye on/placing dye on a campfire dyes the smoke/flames
  • Connected textures for certain blocks when placed next to one another (e.g.: glass, slime blocks, honey blocks, etc.)
  • Soundproof blocks/certain blocks have varying effects on sound (from blocking it completely to dampening it)
  • Ability to rotate blocks in some way (e.g.: a block rotator, a wrench item, etc.)

Combat, Armor, Weapons, and Tools

  • Emerald/obsidian tools and armor
  • Daggers or knives (throwable or melee)
  • Spears or javelins
  • Boomerang (damages mobs/picks up items/flicks levers, etc.)
  • Grappling hook (pulls enemies closer, pulls you towards blocks, etc.)
  • Explosive arrows
  • Slingshots
  • Scythes, either as a weapon or a farming implement
  • Lances for horseback combat
  • Battleaxes, maces, halberds, or warhammers
  • Blowguns/darts (just the weapon itself, or they can inflict potion effects like poison and slowness)
  • Dynamite/throwable TNT or fire charges/grenades
  • Tiered arrows (e.g.: iron/gold/diamond/Netherite/etc. tipped arrows), made through crafting or added as a function for fletching tables
  • Tipping arrows with potion effects as a function of the fletching table
  • Poison/potion tipped sword
  • Different types of swords (long swords, rapiers, broadswords, etc.)
  • Different types of bows/crossbows (longbows, compact bows, bows with different materials, etc.)
  • Different types of shields/different materials used to craft shields (tower shields, kite shields, Netherite shields, diamond shields, etc.)
  • Craft/repair tridents with prismarine related items, etc.
  • Craftable chainmail armor (using iron nuggets or otherwise)
  • Craftable horse armor or saddles (partially implemented with leather horse armor)
  • Dual wielding swords/tools for extra damage/attacks/utility
  • Netherite armor causes Piglins to like you (gold armor already does this)
  • Netherite tools can break bedrock/any unbreakable block
  • Any weapon/tool/armor type can be upgraded to the next tier in the smithing table, just like with diamond gear to Netherite gear
  • Making armoweapons/tools out of materials that are out of place or unfit for such things (e.g.: lapis/redstone/coal/etc. armoweapons/tools)
  • Ability to use various materials in place of sticks for tool handles, either for aesthetics or to provide different stats/abilities (e.g.: bones, blaze rods, etc.)
  • Different textures/stats/abilities/etc. for wooden/stone tools based on the wood/stone type used (e.g.: dark oak wooden tools, blackstone tools, etc.)
  • Special perks for golden gear (tools/armoweapons) (partial implementation with Piglins bartering)
  • "Headshot" --- hitting a playemob head causes more damage (or generally location specific damage)
  • Different tools do more damage to certain mobs than swords do (e.g.: pickaxe does more damage to iron golems/shulkers, shovels do more damage to snow golems, etc.)
  • Shield bashing, either as an ability or an enchantment (left click with a shield knocks enemies back, damages them, stuns them, etc.)
  • Fishing rods (regular, enchanted, or a new variety) can be used in lava/the Nether

Redstone

  • Pipes/tubes/etc. for transferring items, connecting functional block inventories/GUI's, etc.
  • Vertical/ceiling-sticking/wireless/insulated (e.g.: cables, etc.)/underwater redstone
  • Hoppers/droppers/dispensers/etc. working with Jukeboxes
  • One block solutions to existing redstone components/contraptions/circuits (e.g.: logic gate blocks)
  • A way to prevent redstone lines from connecting to one anotheparallel redstone lines without repeaters
  • "Honey pistons" (e.g.: pistons that stick to honey blocks but not to slime blocks, as well as multiple other variations on the concept)
  • Increasing the piston push limit
  • "Bluestone" or dyed redstone circuits
  • Give any item/block/etc. special functionality in a dispenser
  • Redstone lamps light level based on the signal strength provided, or any redstone device being more/less effective based on the signal strength
  • Fuses (place gunpowder, light it, slowly burns, one-time redstone use)

Transportation

  • Attach boats to leads (added to Bedrock exclusively, until feature parity can be reached)
  • Boats with Chests (confirmed future feature, from the biome vote)
  • Boats with Banners (as sails or otherwise)
  • Larger craftable boats/modular boats/ships
  • Furnace carts unaffected by turns or elevation
  • A way to link minecarts together (e.g.: with chains, leads, etc.)
  • Trains of any kind (from linked minecarts to actual trains/train cars/engines)
  • Horse-drawn buggy/wagon for transportation or extra storage
  • Crimson/Warped boats
  • Lava boats, either using minecarts, the missing crimson/warped boats, or some other type of material

User Interface/GUIs

  • Various mechanics when in any GUI (e.g.: ability to see/interact with equipped armor, ability to see and interact with the offhand slot, etc.)
  • Add a furnace, crafting table, anvil, etc. GUI to the creative mode inventory
  • Some form of a pick-tool key/action, which puts the appropriate tool in the main hand when clicking a block
  • Backpacks/satchels/enchantments/etc. for use in expanding the inventory, or directly expand the base inventory itself (shulker boxes already fulfill this mechanic to an extent)
  • Larger crafting table grid
  • Better Book and Quill item (easier formatting/typo fixing/color codes/maps or pictures in books/text selection)
  • Edit signs after placing

Enchantments and Magic

  • Magic for players (spells/staffs/wands/runes/etc.)
  • "Quickdraw" enchantment for bows
  • "Auto-smelt" enchantment (mining ores gets ingots, clay gets bricks)
  • "Timber"/"tree-feller"/"vein-miner" enchantment (break a single log/ore, others of the same type around it get auto-mined)
  • "Speed"/"swiftness"/"traveler" enchantment on boots/leggings (partially implemented with the Soul Speed enchantment for boots, at least on soul sand and soul soil)
  • "Scythe"/"Fertilization"/"Mass Tilling"/"Auto-Plant" enchantment for hoes
  • "Ore Vision" / X-ray vision enchantment for tools (potions too)
  • "Reflection/Deflection" enchantment for shields that knocks arrows/fireworks/fireballs back towards attacker
  • "True Unbreaking"/"Unbreakable" enchantment for armoweapons/tools that leaves them in a broken state at 0 durability, like with elytra
  • "Decapitator"/"Head Hunter" enchantment (killing mobs gets mob heads/a chance for mobs to drop their head)
  • "Lava vision" enchantment/potion, or add a lava vision effect to the fire protection enchantments/etc. (allows the player to see under lava/see better under lava. Partially implemented through the fire resistance effect)
  • "Soul Fire Aspect" enchantment (e.g.: Fire Aspect III, Fire Aspect creates blue flames under certain conditions, etc.)
  • "Magnetism" enchantment that draws in dropped items/immediately collects items upon mining blocks
  • "Lava-Walker" enchantment that turns lava into obsidian or magma when walking on it
  • "Anti-Illager" enchantment that does more damage to Illagers/raid mobs (Vindicator, Evoker, Pillager, witch, ravager, vex)
  • Invisibility 2 effect/invisibility enchantment (hides armoweapons/particles/etc.)
  • Feather falling enchantment/a new enchantment /etc. prevents crops from being trampled
  • A way to remove curses
  • Add Curses that are just the opposite of existing enchantments
  • Some way to transfer enchantments (e.g.: a grindstone or new block that takes enchantments from armoweapons/tools and puts them onto books).
  • Enchantments have environmental effects on items (e.g.: Fire protection prevents an item from burning in lava or makes it drain durability instead, etc.)
  • Enchantments have unique designs/textures for each book/tool/armor piece (thorns is spiky, frost-walker has ice crystals, etc.)

Potions and Brewing

  • Enchant empty/water bottle to get bottle o' enchanting/collecting XP with bottles gives you bottles o’ enchanting/some way to store XP
  • Use the cauldron to brew potions
  • Splash bonemeal/plant growth potion, AoE bonemeal
  • Splash potions of milk (clear potion effects)
  • Adding frog legs for brewing potions of leaping, and make rabbit's foot brew potions of luck
  • Potion of Glowing, either made with glowstone/etc., or inverted from invisibility potions
  • Potion of Wither (brewed by any witheskeleton related mob drop, wither roses, etc.)
  • Make any unavailable effect in survival available in potion form (wither, levitation, luck, haste, etc.)
  • Using thick or mundane potions as a base (these are specifically designed not to have any use at this stage in the development of the game)

Food and Edibles

  • Chocolate milk/cake (cocoa beans + milk/cake)
  • Cook eggs to get scrambled eggs/boiled egg/fried egg/omelette
  • Cake slices/cake movable after placing
  • Apple/berry pie
  • Oranges and orange juice
  • Bananas generate in jungles
  • Sandwiches
  • Cheese
  • Nether Stew, a soup using Nether fungi
  • Corn crops for villages/farms
  • Bake bread with a furnace for baked bread/toast, or bread requires a furnace to make
  • Different food takes different times to consume (partially implemented with dried kelp)
  • Placeable milk/honey/any future liquid (like water or lava)
  • Eating porkchops or rotten flesh in front of Piglins angers them

World Generation

  • Cherry or Redwood Trees
  • Oasis biome in deserts (palm trees, water pool, vegetation, greener grass, etc.)
  • Villages for more biomes (e.g.: swamps, jungles, underground, Nether, End, etc.)
  • Colored lava (such as blue lava found in the soulsand valley biome)
  • Cold biomes in the Nether, or any other type of climate/biome/etc. that is entirely unfit for the Nether's environment
  • Campsite structures (for Villagers, Wandering Traders, Pillagers, Piglins, or undead mobs)
  • Sponges generate in coral reefs
  • Ruby, amethyst, copper, tin, titanium, etc. ore: Ores that do not impact gameplay in a meaningful way are not worth adding. (Somewhat "implemented" with ancient debris in the Nether)
  • Enderite/Endite ore for the End (floats in the Void, is stronger than diamond, etc.)
  • Various different metal alloys, steel, pig iron, etc.
  • Make biomes extend underground/underground biomes/biome-specific caves
  • Alpha/Beta/any past version world generation
  • Increase world height/depth limit, or add cubic chunks
  • Dream/imaginary dimension, accessible through sleeping or via potions
  • Suggesting to take features from one dimension and adding it to any of the others (e.g.: adding coal/iron/diamond ores to the NetheEnd, adding Overworld mobs to those dimensions, adding water to the Nether, etc.)
  • Overworld/NetheEnd reset options
  • Add an option or gamerule to start a world in the Nether
  • One dimension can spread/leak/etc. into another dimension via portals or some other method
  • Superflat worlds also generate superflat Nethers/ends, or separate options for a superflat NetheEnd

Environment and Weather

  • Seasons
  • Auroras/Northern Lights in Cold Biomes
  • Lava rain/lava floods in the Nether
  • Adding Overworld weather (lightning storms, rain, etc.) to the Nether
  • Lightning strikes cause sand/red sand/soul sand to turn into glass
  • More weather conditions (e.g.: blizzards, sandstorms, hail, fog, etc.)
  • Make weather regional rather than global/add a command/option to change it

Mobs and Mob Behaviors

  • Monkeys, apes, gorillas, etc.
  • Black bears, grizzly bears, etc.
  • Snakes/sea serpents
  • Jellyfish or nautiluses
  • Rats or mice
  • Penguins in ice/snow biomes
  • Elephants in savannas/jungles
  • Pirate mobs, whether they be undead or Illagers
  • Elves/dwarves/orcs/goblins/ogres
  • More golems (gold, ice, stone, End, Netherite, etc.)
  • Owls or songbirds
  • Crocodiles or alligators
  • Butterflies or fireflies
  • Salamanders/fire lizards spawn in the Nether
  • Ghast nests/baby ghasts
  • Make zombies randomly have an Alex-based skin
  • Creepers blend into biome/surroundings, chameleon creepers
  • Spiders flip their bodies vertically to climb walls
  • Mobs transform into other mobs when struck by lightning, change behavior, or change existing transformations (e.g.: pigs turn into something other than zombified Piglins when struck by lightning)
  • Phantoms spawn in The End
  • Zombies attack Illagers/Illager zombies
  • Wandering Traders spawn in the NetheEnd
  • Cave spiders spawning outside of mineshafts
  • Common/overdone Villager profession ideas (e.g.: Miner, lumberjack, builder, bee keeper, musician, artist, firework sellers, etc.)
  • More animal skins/breeds/variants (different dog breeds are among the most common in this category)
  • Biome/dimension-dependent mob skins (similar to Villagers)
  • Biome/dimension-dependent mob variations (similar to Husks, Strays, and Drowned)
  • Player zombies (player dies, zombie spawns in their place with all their gear and items)
  • Tamable/Ride-able Ravagers or Hoglins
  • Armor for pets/animals (dogs/cats/parrots/etc.)
  • "Wandering mode" for pets
  • The ability to pet or play fetch with dogs/cats/animals/etc.
  • Endermen's eyes turn green after defeating the ender dragon, and/or they become passive somehow
  • Add more mob heads/any new mob heads
  • Slimes can reform/combine/merge back into larger slimes
  • Zombies can be found with pickaxes at low Y levels/in badlands biomes/in abandoned mineshafts
  • Common/unoriginal boss ideas (queen bee/spider, Illager boss, Nether fortress boss, etc.)
  • Clerics using healing potions to heal other Villagers, and blacksmiths using iron ingots to heal iron golems
  • Cartographers/Wandering Traders/etc. sell maps to mushroom island biomes/other rare biomes/structures
  • Infiltratospy/disguised Illager (an Illager disguised as a Villager, disrupts a village and/or attacks when revealed/attempting to trade)
  • Take features from mob X and give them to mob Y (e.g.: fox behaviors being given to dogs/cats/etc., panda genetics being applied to other mobs, etc.)
  • Bring back the old Zombie Pigman model in some way (e.g.: as a separate mob, through resource packs, naming them with nametags, etc.)
  • Rename Zombified Piglins to Zombie Piglins or Ziglins
  • Pigs/Piglins/any pig related mob dances to the pigstep music disc
  • Piglins offebartedrop maps to Nether structures (Bastions, fortresses, etc.)
  • Elder guardians/any other mini boss should have their own boss bars/health bars

Gameplay Mechanics

  • Fall damage based on block you land on (partially implemented with hay bales and beds)
  • Arrows/Tridents/falling anvils/gliding with an elytra/etc. will shatter glass
  • Players can drop their head on certain death conditions
  • Items dropped (in wateon land) can be retrieved with a fishing rod/Loyalty trident/etc.
  • A method to revive pets (e.g.: totem of undying, pet collar, pet bed, etc.)
  • Dragon Egg can be hatched (baby ride-able dragon)
  • Dragon Egg for every dragon killed, rather than just the first
  • Negative beacon effects (weakness, jump height reduction, slower regeneration, etc.)
  • More music discs/custom music discs/recorder block to record sounds/music
  • Stonecutters deal damage when stepped on
  • Flying over a campfire with an elytra causes lift/pushes the player up into the air
  • Swimming in lava using Netherite armor or fire resistance potions
  • Give rarer items (such as Netherite, the Dragon Egg, the Heart of the Sea, etc.) more unique properties than they already have (such as an increased despawn time limit, immunity to cacti, etc.)
  • Chains can be used to hold up gravity affected blocks/keep them from falling
  • Climbable chains, similar to ladders, scaffolding, etc.
  • Chains stick together, and pulling one pulls any connected chains as well
  • Furnaces give more than one item of output per input item (e.g.: the amount of iron/gold nuggets from smelting armor is based on the durability of the armor)
  • Furnaces smelt items faster in the Nether, or faster based on the fuel used, or items can be smelted/cooked just from being in the Nether
  • Placing gunpowder in furnaces cause them to explode
  • Sleeping causes all crops/furnaces/potions/etc. to finish growing/cooking/brewing/etc. instantly
  • Wearing a zombie head causes Villagers to flee/panic, causes iron golems to attack the player, etc.
  • End AnchoRespawn Anchor working in the End (or some other way of respawning in the End)
  • Various mob interactions with music discs 11 and 13 (e.g.: passive or other mobs run away from the music, Illagers dance to them, etc.) (partially rejected for parrots, as they are designed to dance to all music discs)
  • Arrows with "Flame" enchantment/after going through lava/fire should ignite the block they land on
  • Special nametags/potions can silence/quiet down mobs (or some other form of "silence"/sound reduction mechanic that silences/reduces the sound of blocks and mobs)
  • Two players can ride on horses/multiplayer horse riding
  • Shearing chickens/parrots gives feathers

Map-Making and Commands

  • Chat detection with commands
  • Key press detection, or binding command to key
  • Click statistics/detection for commands
  • Variables in commands, or ability to put selectors/objectives in NBT data (partially implemented with execute store)
  • A specific block/item for map makers to re-model/re-texture
  • A mob that displays as a player, with tag to choose skin. (e.g.: summon fake_player ~ ~ ~ {Skin:"Notch"} )
  • Allow custom models/textures based on new/existing NBT data (e.g.: a Model tag) or unused damage values (Partially implemented via CustomModelData])
  • Command to change/test biomes (possible through advancements/predicates for testing biomes)
  • Ability to set mobGriefing/mobSpawning/etc. for each mob/etc., either as separate gamerules for each one, or through additional parameters to the existing gamerules
  • Selector (argument) for hostile, neutral, passive, tameable, etc. mobs (e.g.: u/h, u/eBlocks
  • Give any existing common building block in the game (terracotta, concrete, Netherrack, etc.) a slab/staibrick/cracked brick/pillapolished/etc. variant
  • Chests/bookshelves/etc. for all wood types (partially implemented with signs, buttons, and pressure plates)
  • Furnaces/etc. for all stone types (partially implemented with blackstone buttons/pressure plates/etc.)
  • Any stone/cobblestone based items work like the full block does (e.g.: stone stairs/etc. become cobblestone stairs/etc. when mined, cobblestone stairs/etc. become stone stairs/etc. when smelted, stone stairs/etc. stay as stone stairs/etc. when silk touch is used, etc.)
  • Add NBT data to certain blocks (only block entities can store NBT information)
  • Add any gold version of existing iron blocks (e.g.: gold hoppers, gold chains, gold bars, etc.)
  • Fake Netherite blocks/any other expensive block (a survival friendly way to use the Netherite/etc. block texture without the high cost)
  • Craftable/mine-able End portal blocks
  • Make blackstone renewable in a similar fashion to cobblestone or basalt (i.e. blackstone generator)
  • Add any missing soul fire variants (e.g.: white soul fire jack o' lanterns, etc.)
  • Lava-logged/glass-filled/filler blocks
  • Storage block for charcoal
  • Glass doors/trapdoors
  • Rope/rope blocks/rope ladders
  • Rotten flesh blocks
  • Ash blocks (most commonly suggested for the Nether)
  • End quartz
  • Crystal blocks
  • Bamboo planks/blocks
  • Mud blocks/bricks/etc.
  • Darkstone/any block/item/etc. that cancels out light/produces negative light/etc.
  • Lava sponges
  • Warped wart and crimson wart, used to craft warped Nether bricks and crimson Nether bricks, respectively, as well as any other common, generic, or obvious uses for them (e.g. a use in potions that acts different from Netherwart, fortresses made of the brick blocks, etc.)

Building Improvements and Decoration

Limitations often encourage builders to come up with creative solutions, such as chairs made from stairs or slabs.
  • Fake/empty bookshelves
  • Sideways banners/flags
  • Horizontal glass panes/fences/walls/etc.
  • Leads can be placed sideways on fences to make "rope fences"
  • Custom paintings/drawing paintings
  • More banner patterns
  • Candles (made with wax/beeswax, either behaves like sea pickles, or just another typical light source)
  • Carpet or snow layers placed over stairs/slabs/walls/etc. changes to fit them exactly
  • Carpets can be stacked up when placed similar to snow layers, either with mixed colors or only the same color
  • Adjustable light blocks and/or invisible light source blocks
  • Book storage in bookshelves
  • Allow armor stands to have arms in survival
  • Colored/stained lanterns/redstone lamps/torches/any light source (partially implemented with Soul Torches and Soul Fire Lamps, being blue)
  • Using dye on/placing dye on a campfire dyes the smoke/flames
  • Connected textures for certain blocks when placed next to one another (e.g.: glass, slime blocks, honey blocks, etc.)
  • Soundproof blocks/certain blocks have varying effects on sound (from blocking it completely to dampening it)
  • Ability to rotate blocks in some way (e.g.: a block rotator, a wrench item, etc.)

Player Vanity

  • Tabards/surcoats/wearable banners
  • Ability to equip any item/block in the helmet slot
  • Climbing/falling/diving/flying animations
  • Adding banner patterns to the elytra/beds/armoetc.
  • Ability to dye elytra any color, similar to leather armor
  • Any current/future armor can be dyed just like leather armor (e.g.: the new Netherite armor)
  • Purely aesthetic/decorative tools/weapons/armoetc.
  • Obtaining capes in any way that isn't already supported
  • Witch hats/Villager hats can be obtained and worn

Combat, Armor, Weapons, and Tools

  • Emerald/obsidian tools and armor
  • Daggers or knives (throwable or melee)
  • Spears or javelins
  • Boomerang (damages mobs/picks up items/flicks levers, etc.)
  • Grappling hook (pulls enemies closer, pulls you towards blocks, etc.)
  • Explosive arrows
  • Slingshots
  • Scythes, either as a weapon or a farming implement
  • Lances for horseback combat
  • Battleaxes, maces, halberds, or warhammers
  • Blowguns/darts (just the weapon itself, or they can inflict potion effects like poison and slowness)
  • Dynamite/throwable TNT or fire charges/grenades
  • Tiered arrows (e.g.: iron/gold/diamond/Netherite/etc. tipped arrows), made through crafting or added as a function for fletching tables
  • Tipping arrows with potion effects as a function of the fletching table
  • Poison/potion tipped sword
  • Different types of swords (long swords, rapiers, broadswords, etc.)
  • Different types of bows/crossbows (longbows, compact bows, bows with different materials, etc.)
  • Different types of shields/different materials used to craft shields (tower shields, kite shields, Netherite shields, diamond shields, etc.)
  • Craft/repair tridents with prismarine related items, etc.
  • Craftable chainmail armor (using iron nuggets or otherwise)
  • Craftable horse armor or saddles (partially implemented with leather horse armor)
  • Dual wielding swords/tools for extra damage/attacks/utility
  • Netherite armor causes Piglins to like you (gold armor already does this)
  • Netherite tools can break bedrock/any unbreakable block
  • Any weapon/tool/armor type can be upgraded to the next tier in the smithing table, just like with diamond gear to Netherite gear
  • Making armoweapons/tools out of materials that are out of place or unfit for such things (e.g.: lapis/redstone/coal/etc. armoweapons/tools)
  • Ability to use various materials in place of sticks for tool handles, either for aesthetics or to provide different stats/abilities (e.g.: bones, blaze rods, etc.)
  • Different textures/stats/abilities/etc. for wooden/stone tools based on the wood/stone type used (e.g.: dark oak wooden tools, blackstone tools, etc.)
  • Special perks for golden gear (tools/armoweapons) (partial implementation with Piglins bartering)
  • "Headshot" --- hitting a playemob head causes more damage (or generally location specific damage)
  • Different tools do more damage to certain mobs than swords do (e.g.: pickaxe does more damage to iron golems/shulkers, shovels do more damage to snow golems, etc.)
  • Shield bashing, either as an ability or an enchantment (left click with a shield knocks enemies back, damages them, stuns them, etc.)
  • Fishing rods (regular, enchanted, or a new variety) can be used in lava/the Nether

Utility

  • Better stair math (output being 6/8, or recipe being 3 blocks instead of 6) (partially implemented with the stonecutter for stone materials)
  • Stonecutters cut wood blocks as well as stone, or a separate wood cuttesawmill/carpentry table for cutting wood
  • Kilns for smelting clay/terracotta/etc. faster
  • "Better furnaces" that smelt everything faster (regular furnaces are not going to be replaced, blast furnaces and smokers are for specific items only so that the furnace remains useful)
  • Breaking down crafted items for resources - uncrafting/salvaging table
  • Campfires/beacons prevent mob spawning in a large radius
  • Campfires scare/ward off hostile mobs
  • Smelting rotten flesh gives leather
  • Rotten flesh can be used in composters
  • Using coal/charcoal to make black/grey dye
  • Placing milk/honey/any future liquid in cauldrons
  • Lightning rods (iron blocks, End rods) to attract lightning strikes (controllable lightning was added with the trident's "Channeling" enchantment)
  • Text on signs will remain if the sign is silk touched/some way of keeping the text on a sign
  • Withered/charred/black bones dropped by Wither Skeletons, craftable into withered bone meal (used to decay/kill/stop the growth of/etc. plants, or make Netherwart grow faster)
  • Reducing/removing the penalty of dying (e.g.: storing gained xp, new totem that stores items/xp upon death, death coordinates show up on the respawn screen, gravestones with a chest of the lost items, death location shows up on maps, etc.)
  • A way to disable a work station/prevent a Villager from using a work station block
  • Some way to heal snow golems (e.g.: snowballs, blue ice, snowy weather, etc.)
  • Combine any existing item with a Netherite ingot in a smithing table to get a Netherite version of the given item, or add various Netherite based items in general (e.g.: Netherite bows, Netherite crossbows, Netherite tridents, Netherite horse armor, Netherite shulker boxes, etc.)
  • Additional effects based on the material used in a beacon pyramid/as "fuel" in the beacon (e.g.: Netherite blocks in the pyramid grant fire resistance, increase the range of effect, prevent mob spawns, etc.)
  • Craft any stone/cobblestone related items using basalt/andesite/granite/diorite/etc. (e.g.: furnaces, tools, etc.), or use any variant of a given block interchangeably for crafting/etc. (e.g.: soul sand can be smelted into glass, crafted into TNT, etc.) (partially implemented with blackstone blocks)
  • Change Wandering Trader trades/make them better in some way (especially if it's overly vague)
  • Add some method to prevent Piglins/Hoglins/etc. from zombifying in the Overworld, or add some method to cure zombified Piglins/Zoglins/etc.
  • Some way to fool Piglins (e.g.: add a new pyrite/fool's gold/etc. ore that is very similar to gold. Armor made from it can fool Piglins when worn near them, ingots of it can fool Piglins when bartering, etc.)
  • Shulker boxes drop all their items/netherite when destroyed by fire/lava/cacti etc

Redstone

  • Pipes/tubes/etc. for transferring items, connecting functional block inventories/GUI's, etc.
  • Vertical/ceiling-sticking/wireless/insulated (e.g.: cables, etc.)/underwater redstone
  • Hoppers/droppers/dispensers/etc. working with Jukeboxes
  • One block solutions to existing redstone components/contraptions/circuits (e.g.: logic gate blocks)
  • A way to prevent redstone lines from connecting to one anotheparallel redstone lines without repeaters
  • "Honey pistons" (e.g.: pistons that stick to honey blocks but not to slime blocks, as well as multiple other variations on the concept)
  • Increasing the piston push limit
  • "Bluestone" or dyed redstone circuits
  • Give any item/block/etc. special functionality in a dispenser
  • Redstone lamps light level based on the signal strength provided, or any redstone device being more/less effective based on the signal strength
  • Fuses (place gunpowder, light it, slowly burns, one-time redstone use)

Transportation

  • Attach boats to leads (added to Bedrock exclusively, until feature parity can be reached)
  • Boats with Chests (confirmed future feature, from the biome vote)
  • Boats with Banners (as sails or otherwise)
  • Larger craftable boats/modular boats/ships
  • Furnace carts unaffected by turns or elevation
  • A way to link minecarts together (e.g.: with chains, leads, etc.)
  • Trains of any kind (from linked minecarts to actual trains/train cars/engines)
  • Horse-drawn buggy/wagon for transportation or extra storage
  • Crimson/Warped boats
  • Lava boats, either using minecarts, the missing crimson/warped boats, or some other type of material

Enchantments and Magic

  • Magic for players (spells/staffs/wands/runes/etc.)
  • "Quickdraw" enchantment for bows
  • "Auto-smelt" enchantment (mining ores gets ingots, clay gets bricks)
  • "Timber"/"tree-feller"/"vein-miner" enchantment (break a single log/ore, others of the same type around it get auto-mined)
  • "Speed"/"swiftness"/"traveler" enchantment on boots/leggings (partially implemented with the Soul Speed enchantment for boots, at least on soul sand and soul soil)
  • "Scythe"/"Fertilization"/"Mass Tilling"/"Auto-Plant" enchantment for hoes
  • "Ore Vision" / X-ray vision enchantment for tools (potions too)
  • "Reflection/Deflection" enchantment for shields that knocks arrows/fireworks/fireballs back towards attacker
  • "True Unbreaking"/"Unbreakable" enchantment for armoweapons/tools that leaves them in a broken state at 0 durability, like with elytra
  • "Decapitator"/"Head Hunter" enchantment (killing mobs gets mob heads/a chance for mobs to drop their head)
  • "Lava vision" enchantment/potion, or add a lava vision effect to the fire protection enchantments/etc. (allows the player to see under lava/see better under lava. Partially implemented through the fire resistance effect)
  • "Soul Fire Aspect" enchantment (e.g.: Fire Aspect III, Fire Aspect creates blue flames under certain conditions, etc.)
  • "Magnetism" enchantment that draws in dropped items/immediately collects items upon mining blocks
  • "Lava-Walker" enchantment that turns lava into obsidian or magma when walking on it
  • "Anti-Illager" enchantment that does more damage to Illagers/raid mobs (Vindicator, Evoker, Pillager, witch, ravager, vex)
  • Invisibility 2 effect/invisibility enchantment (hides armoweapons/particles/etc.)
  • Feather falling enchantment/a new enchantment /etc. prevents crops from being trampled
  • A way to remove curses
  • Add Curses that are just the opposite of existing enchantments
  • Some way to transfer enchantments (e.g.: a grindstone or new block that takes enchantments from armoweapons/tools and puts them onto books).
  • Enchantments have environmental effects on items (e.g.: Fire protection prevents an item from burning in lava or makes it drain durability instead, etc.)
  • Enchantments have unique designs/textures for each book/tool/armor piece (thorns is spiky, frost-walker has ice crystals, etc.)

Potions and Brewing

  • Enchant empty/water bottle to get bottle o' enchanting/collecting XP with bottles gives you bottles o’ enchanting/some way to store XP
  • Use the cauldron to brew potions
  • Splash bonemeal/plant growth potion, AoE bonemeal
  • Splash potions of milk (clear potion effects)
  • Adding frog legs for brewing potions of leaping, and make rabbit's foot brew potions of luck
  • Potion of Glowing, either made with glowstone/etc., or inverted from invisibility potions
  • Potion of Wither (brewed by any witheskeleton related mob drop, wither roses, etc.)
  • Make any unavailable effect in survival available in potion form (wither, levitation, luck, haste, etc.)
  • Using thick or mundane potions as a base (these are specifically designed not to have any use at this stage in the development of the game)

Food and Edibles

  • Chocolate milk/cake (cocoa beans + milk/cake)
  • Cook eggs to get scrambled eggs/boiled egg/fried egg/omelette
  • Cake slices/cake movable after placing
  • Apple/berry pie
  • Oranges and orange juice
  • Bananas generate in jungles
  • Sandwiches
  • Cheese
  • Nether Stew, a soup using Nether fungi
  • Corn crops for villages/farms
  • Bake bread with a furnace for baked bread/toast, or bread requires a furnace to make
  • Different food takes different times to consume (partially implemented with dried kelp)
  • Placeable milk/honey/any future liquid (like water or lava)
  • Eating porkchops or rotten flesh in front of Piglins angers them

Mobs and Mob Behaviors

  • Monkeys, apes, gorillas, etc.
  • Black bears, grizzly bears, etc.
  • Snakes/sea serpents
  • Jellyfish or nautiluses
  • Rats or mice
  • Penguins in ice/snow biomes
  • Elephants in savannas/jungles
  • Pirate mobs, whether they be undead or Illagers
  • Elves/dwarves/orcs/goblins/ogres
  • More golems (gold, ice, stone, End, Netherite, etc.)
  • Owls or songbirds
  • Crocodiles or alligators
  • Butterflies or fireflies
  • Salamanders/fire lizards spawn in the Nether
  • Ghast nests/baby ghasts
  • Make zombies randomly have an Alex-based skin
  • Creepers blend into biome/surroundings, chameleon creepers
  • Spiders flip their bodies vertically to climb walls
  • Mobs transform into other mobs when struck by lightning, change behavior, or change existing transformations (e.g.: pigs turn into something other than zombified Piglins when struck by lightning)
  • Phantoms spawn in The End
  • Zombies attack Illagers/Illager zombies
  • Wandering Traders spawn in the NetheEnd
  • Cave spiders spawning outside of mineshafts
  • Common/overdone Villager profession ideas (e.g.: Miner, lumberjack, builder, bee keeper, musician, artist, firework sellers, etc.)
  • More animal skins/breeds/variants (different dog breeds are among the most common in this category)
  • Biome/dimension-dependent mob skins (similar to Villagers)
  • Biome/dimension-dependent mob variations (similar to Husks, Strays, and Drowned)
  • Player zombies (player dies, zombie spawns in their place with all their gear and items)
  • Tamable/Ride-able Ravagers or Hoglins
  • Armor for pets/animals (dogs/cats/parrots/etc.)
  • "Wandering mode" for pets
  • The ability to pet or play fetch with dogs/cats/animals/etc.
  • Endermen's eyes turn green after defeating the ender dragon, and/or they become passive somehow
  • Add more mob heads/any new mob heads
  • Slimes can reform/combine/merge back into larger slimes
  • Zombies can be found with pickaxes at low Y levels/in badlands biomes/in abandoned mineshafts
  • Common/unoriginal boss ideas (queen bee/spider, Illager boss, Nether fortress boss, etc.)
  • Clerics using healing potions to heal other Villagers, and blacksmiths using iron ingots to heal iron golems
  • Cartographers/Wandering Traders/etc. sell maps to mushroom island biomes/other rare biomes/structures
  • Infiltratospy/disguised Illager (an Illager disguised as a Villager, disrupts a village and/or attacks when revealed/attempting to trade)
  • Take features from mob X and give them to mob Y (e.g.: fox behaviors being given to dogs/cats/etc., panda genetics being applied to other mobs, etc.)
  • Bring back the old Zombie Pigman model in some way (e.g.: as a separate mob, through resource packs, naming them with nametags, etc.)
  • Rename Zombified Piglins to Zombie Piglins or Ziglins
  • Pigs/Piglins/any pig related mob dances to the pigstep music disc
  • Piglins offebartedrop maps to Nether structures (Bastions, fortresses, etc.)
  • Elder guardians/any other mini boss should have their own boss bars/health bars
tl;dr
the minecraftsuggestions fps list
submitted by MoLikesReddit to shittymcsuggestions

Misconceptions About Memory in CSA Cases or: If you don’t understand how memory works you very likely will judge CSA victims unfairly

Misconceptions About Memory in CSA Cases or: If you don’t understand how memory works you very likely will judge CSA victims unfairly

I want to invite you to make a test of your own knowledge about memory. I want to encourage you to actually do this test as an indicator of how good your knowledge (or intuition) about memory is.

TEST

WHICH STATEMENT BELOW IS WRONG?
  1. Memory is like camera capturing what is in front of your eyes.
  2. Memory is like a library catalogue of experiences.
  3. Memory is like a DVD recording that can be replayed.
  4. Memory is like an improvisation that changes with each performance.
  5. Most adults can recall events in their early childhood years.
  6. Information recalled after an initial report is made is less reliable.
  7. Children respond to sexual abuse in the same way.
  8. In false memory studies, most participants are susceptible to misinformation.
Answer: All are wrong, except point 4. (21:00)
https://preview.redd.it/9rq3838j3fz51.jpg?width=1200&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=b5bc32c153e8ff481780b3b736343337c07af603
Misconceptions about memory endorsed by members of the public is 79% high. (22:10)
Imagine if that would be about basic math the members of public would be considered very uneducated. And I think you could say the lack of understanding CSA cases is often a result of uneducated opinions. How often do we hear: This description is not credible, defies logic, etc.?
Body of research (done throughout the world) has shown that there’s quite an extensive gap between what memory researchers know and what members of the lay public or those other professions know and that in fact sometimes police officers for example endorsed entirely contradictory beliefs about memory. (22:10)
All sources from Prof. Jane Goodman, „Memory as evidence of childhood sexual abuse“. It’s worth the time (1h 10min). She walks you through the core content of a 185 page report.
Here are some interesting quotes.

PARADOX OF PROOF

People who had been abused on a one-off occasion or a single event tended to have better capacity to narrate and report the event than people who had been victims of multiple repeated incidents of sexual abuse. (7:20)

STUDIES

Types of memory research, for example Analogue Studies, show that these studies are solid. If you want to know more about the execution of studies she talks about them at 18:00.

COMMON SENSE VS. SCIENTIFIC VIEWS OF MEMORY

8 key facts distinguish common sense from expert views:
  1. memory is generally accurate;
  2. more memory details imply more accurate core memory;
  3. extent of false memories, especially of childhodd sex abuse;
  4. memory is continuous like a video;
  5. emotional intensity or trauma leads to vivid memory accuracy; ‚relieving‘ trauma increases memory accuracy
  6. traumatic memories can be repressed for many years;
  7. childhood memory is unreliable as children are suggestible;
  8. memory fades steadily over time. (25:30)

FRAGMENTS OF EXPERIENCES

The notion that memory is continuous like a videotape is very common and it leads to the idea that in intensive questioning in an investigation or in court, you know, if you just keep questioning you’ll get people to kind of replay it and you’ll keep getting the same reports about footage from Part A or Part B or Part C of a kind of an analog tape of memory. But that’s not how memory works at all. We don’t have continuous memories. The way our memory systems operate is really, you know, our eyes shift around they do saccadic shifts, they grab little snippets of information perceptually then some of that fades even before we have a chance to make sense of it cognitively. And so the loss continues, we interpret it based on our own worldview, based on our own experience, based on our own understanding. So there’s nothing camera-like or video-tape-like about what we’re doing when we encode memories. And after we’ve made sense of them in whatever way we can, we still have to transfer them into our long-term memories, our storage, and then we have to retrieve them again and all of those processes are such that errors occur along the way and there are difficulties at different stages and so we tend to have at the most fragments of experiences, nothing like a video-recorder. (27:20)

VIVIDNESS VS. ACCURACY

There’s a very common notion that if you have a traumatic event in your life that it will be vividly imprinted on your brain. And you will hear phrases like that in many common language and discussion about something being etched in your memory permanently. But what we know from studies now is that vividness is totally separate from accuracy. So you can have a very intensive, vivid recollection but that has no bearing on the accuracy. And emotion affects people in different ways and so it might you know depending on how you respond to trauma and your coping style, the impact on your memory is differentiated. So be wrong to think that just because something is a traumatic memory, you have an enhanced recollection. That’s not goting to be true for probably at least half the people. And for some of their memories of traumatic events are going to be so fragmented because they have coping styles and consequences of the trauma that impair their capacity. (29:00)

SUGGESTIBILITY

The idea that children are extremely suggestible has been refuted by some contemporary research in particular in the past since 2008 especially they’ve been numerous publications highlighting the strength of children’s memory at different ages ans showing that they are in many instances more resistant than adolescents and adults to suggestion because they are relying much more on what we call their episodic or their event memory when they recall things whereas adults and adolescents are more sophisticated understanding of the world and have a better development of categorisation and classification of what we call conceptual memory and when you rely on your conceptual memory you distinguish it from your episodic or your event memory and then you tend to fill in the gaps based on your predictions about things based on your understanding of the categories and classifications and so children are more faithful and reliable when they haven’t yet developed those categories and classifications that adolescents and adults tend to rely on that make them more error prone. (30:30)

ENCODING MEMORIES

We are very poor at constructing timeframes retrospectively. We make enormous misestimations in that regard. (33:50)
[A] very important event distinction with childhood sexual abuse is that not all abusers experience as traumatic by children at the time. Very often that’s adults projecting onto children what they think the event order have been but skilled child sex offenders usually employ grooming techniques they’re usually individuals who are very well known to the children so children are not fearful or traumatized in their company and usually if there’s a very methodical slow acclimatization process so the children get slowly used to being touched in perhapt slightly more intimate and personal ways intrusively over a long period of time we’re told this is fun which presented in a context of this is, you know, what people do and they love each other etc. so there’s a complete obfuscation and a kind of a distortion of the event that is very deliberate on the behalf of the offender. So it’s very awkward for children to code that as a trauma because there’s nothing scary or dangerous necessarily at the time, because violence is quite rare in cases of child sexual abuse so the primary perpetrators are not the stranger danger kind of event, it’s usually well known trusted friends, family members, siblings, etc. who are the perpetrators. So there may be a long time that passes before children mature and have a different understanding based on their maturation and greater social knowledge about what actually occurred and so it can take a long time before they report for that reason. (35:00)
But if memory of an event is traumatic at the time that is very likely to lead to more sparse encoding, more fragmentary memories rather than complete memories. So again that goes counter to what many people believe. (36:50)

CONSOLIDATING MEMORIES

If you’re looking at consolidation of traumatic memories or repeated events there are a couple of things that are important to note there. […] So if charge sexual abuse is repeated over and over and over again, as is very typical, then the victims develop a template for that event and so they’re going to be very incapable of answering questions about, you know, on the fourth time, you know, that the perpetrator did X to you, what’s he wearing, this color clothing or that color clothing or where you are, in a place A or place B, that kind of information will be subsumed into the template and so that’s why those requests for particularisation in persistent types of child sexual abuse are so impossible for the victims to retrieve and supply. But they can reliably report the core events. But the kinds of errors that they would make would be what we would call transposition or intrusion errors where something that happened on occasion six might be muddled in their minds with something that happened on occasion four because of the non-specificity of the coding once the template is developed. (40:40)
The most important thing to know about retrieval are that it’s very sensitive to precisely the cues at a particular time and that once you started to retrieve information you often go on later on retrieving further details about an event. So that if you have a legal practice where you’re asked to retrieve everything now, you know, can you remember anything else about this event. And the witness says: No, I can’t. And then the next day or in the next week the witness spontaneously remembers additional details, the law tends to regard those subsequent reminiscences in a very negative light. Those are regarded most typically as fabrications or as unreliable by the legal profession. But when researchers have compared the quality of those reminiscences subsequent to questioning they have found that they’re generally reliable. (43:05)

NO MEMORY FROM EARLY CHILDHOOD YEARS

If somebody reports that they recollect abuse from, and they’re an adult, and they’re retrospectively saying that they recall events in early childhood years when they were 2, 3, 4, 5 etc. that kind of report should be scrutinised very, very carefully because by and large we can’t remember early childhood events. Once we mature we are all prone to what is called childhood amnesia. And the childhood amnesic period, which is mostly inaccessible to adults memories, is somewhere around five to seven years and below and so that’s usually fairly blanked out. (47:00)
Considering that Wade was 7 at the time of his first abuse, his troubles to access that memory, timeline, etc. is understandable.

DISSOCIATION, AVOIDANCE LEADS TO MUCH MORE MEMORY FRAGMENTATION

If an individual experiences a trauma and at the time of the event they are so traumatized that they try to disengage from the experience or disassociate from it they’re using what we call an avoidant coping style. If you use such a style you actually impair your encoding by that dissociation. And sometimes the dissociation can be quite extreme, people can imagine themselves floating above their bodies in the top of the room if they’re able to dissociate to that extent but oftentimes it’s simply refusal or avoidance of confronting what is an emotionally unpleasant experience or memory so the avoidance can be at the time as well as subsequent to the time and that leads to much more memory fragmentation, certainly doesn’t improve or enhance your recall for that event. (48:30)

DISTRESS IN THE TIME OF RETRIEVAL

Shame, stress, fear in an interview or in court can impair retrievial or reporting of relevant memories.
Supporting interview techniques and procedures to minimize stress faciliate more accurate and complete recall and reporting. (49:30)

BEST EVIDENCE OF CHILDREN AND VULNERABLE WITNESSES

Reliable and accurate information: Free recall prompts for an open-ended narrative response. „Tell me what happened?“
Confusion and unreliable information: Cross-examination style leading questions, suggestive questions, option-posing questions, they are confusing and you tend to get a higher rate of false or unreliable information.
Inaccuracies can go up because many times lawyers will repeat a question in a slightly different way to a child and the child infer that they must have said something wrong the first time, so they change their answer to try to figure out what’s going on socially, why are they being asked the question again and that produces inadvertent inconsistencies and are really the result of the questioning and have nothing to do with memory whatsoever.
Impaired recall is especially likely when you’re dealing with very young children, primary school children and distressed witnesses who do not have support in the questioning process. Cross-examination-style questions which do not include free-recall prompts tend to inhibit memory of victims at the time of retrieval. (51:40)
We know that Mesereau did that kind of confusing cross-examination-style, so let’s not pretend he wanted reliable information from Gavin or Star Arvizo. He’s taking advantage of vulnerable witnesses and as a skilled lawyer that’s simply his way to undermine their credibility to protect his client.

ALTERNATE MEASURES, MEMORY-INFORMED PRACTICE

She explains alternative ways how CSA cases could be handled (53:20)

Questions from audience:
PRE-VERBAL CSA VICTIMS (57:20)
ACCESSIBILITY OF AMNESIA (1:01:50)
MEMORY CONSOLIDATION WITH MOTHER (1:05:20)

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