Welcome to Our Website

8.1 product key no survey

Fortnite Aimbot Licence Key

Washington, DC: Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project, FHI 360. Windows 7/8.1/10; Processor (AMD. Gta V Serial Key Without Survey Adobe Director 11.5 Serial Key Unreal Tournament 3 Serial Key Lan Windows 10 Creators Update Serial Key Network Magic Essentials 5.5 Serial Key Windows 10 Pro Product Serial Key Serial Key Sniper Ghost Warrior Pc Gta V Serial Key No Survey Advanced Systemcare 8.4 Serial Key F-prot Antivirus Serial Key. 8.1 product key no survey.

Gta Iv Serial Key And Unlock Code Free Download

Gmail Hacker PRO Crack + Activation Keys {2020} Gmail hacker pro is a hacking software which can hack Gmail account. We tend to found some exploits within the engine of the foremost common contact sport and currently we. APM is a subset of Technical Product Management. WWE 2K16 cd key generator will provide you. This web page, which displays only the most recent versions of the files, has been divided into Volumes I and II as shown below. Windows 8 keygen download no survey over here. Windows 8.1 64 Bit Product Key Generator websites.

Gmail Hacker Pro Product Key

Web Gateway is installed as an appliance in your local network to protect it against threats arising from web usage. There is the easy way and the hard way to do so. How to Install Windows without a product key from USB. Microsoft Office 2020 Product Key 2020 Review: I simply consider Microsoft Office 2020 product key 2020 as one the best effective and beneficial tool, which help the professionals to make presentations, create excel sheets and documents and many other worthwhile things. Key Features & Benefits * Find product key for Microsoft Office 2020, 2020, XP, 2020, 2020, and Windows 7, Vista, 2020, 2020, 2020, NT, XP (32-bit and 64-bit supported). FIFA 15 Key Generator No Survey. List of Windows Product/Serial Keys. Lazesoft Windows Product finder is a free Windows and Microsoft Office product key code finder and retriever.

Key generator download Acer Support Drivers and Manuals

Delphi and C++ Builder applications. How to Reveal Your Windows Product Key in All Current. Overwatch License Generator Tool. Steam Key Generator 2020 No Survey No Password supports wide range of platforms, such. CD Key Generator - Free download and software reviews more bonuses. McAfee Web Gateway 7.8.1 - Product Documentation https://eldiesel21.ru/download/?file=910. Mysql gui tool for mac.

EA Sports UFC 2 Serial Key Generator PC Xbox One PS4

No prior knowledge or experience with surveys required. Cheats and Hacks: Street Fighter V Keygen Download (CD-key. It may be a good idea to read a few SurveyAnyplace Survey Software reviews first as specific services can perform well only in a really narrow set of applications or be designed with a very specific industry in mind. Microsoft Games For Windows Live Serial Key Watch Dogs Serial Key No Survey Left 4 Dead 2 Serial Key Free Pinnacle Studio 15 Hd Ultimate Serial Key Magix Music Maker 2020 Serial Key List Just Cause 3 Serial Key Pc Microsoft Office 2020 Serial Key Windows 8.1 Ashampoo Zip Pro Serial Key Cdriver Booster 3 Serial Key. Are you looking for Elite: Dangerous Key Generator with no surveys and no a password in the year 2020? Windows 8.1 Preview is prerelease software that may be substantially modified before it's commercially released. Now you have best chance to activate your windows with the help of this best updated key generator version.

Free 100% working hack tools with proof: Money Adder

FIFA 20 Free Serial Key Cd Key Activation Key Keygen

Reference tools are provided to help users navigate the 2020 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Explaination about the Powerline Rate and Actual speed of the Powerline Adapters 09-03-2020 6084; Most frequently asked questions about TP-Link powerline devices 07-29-2020 836831. List Of Windows 8 1 Product Key mediafire links free download, download Windows 8 1 Product Key Finder Ultimate v13 10 1, Windows 8 1 Product Key Finder Ultimate v13 10 1(2), Windows 8 1 Product Key Finder Ultimate v13 12 2 Christmas Edition Setup - list of windows 8 1 product key mediafire files. Cs go case key free generator no survey – how-to get free csgo has latest anti detection system built in, such as proxy and VPN support. Hi Kelly, It's important to remember that while we approve your points right away, our partners still need to review them. Voicemod Crack License Key Free Download - BEST CHOICE. How to activate Windows 8.1- No Survey. Free download https://eldiesel21.ru/download/?file=905.

Global Dual-core CPU Modules Market 2020 Growth Factors, Types and Application by Regional Geography 2025

Global “Dual-core CPU Modules Market” Prominence and Inclination Report 2019-2025 offers a comprehensive analysis on Dual-core CPU Modules industry, topple on the readers’ perspective, delivering detailed market data and perceptive visions.
This report studies the global market size of Dual-core CPU Modules in key regions like North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Central & South America and Middle East & Africa, focuses on the consumption of Dual-core CPU Modules Consumables in these regions.
Get a Sample Copy of the Report at - https://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/request-sample/14832769
About Dual-core CPU Modules Market

  • The global Dual-core CPU Modules market was valued at million US$ in 2018 and will reach million US$ by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of during 2019-2025.
  • This report focuses on Dual-core CPU Modules volume and value at global level, regional level and company level. From a global perspective, this report represents overall Dual-core CPU Modules market size by analyzing historical data and future prospect.
This research report categorizes the global Dual-core CPU Modules market by top players/brands, region, type and end user. This report also studies the global Dual-core CPU Modules market status, competition landscape, market share, growth rate, future trends, market drivers, opportunities and challenges, sales channels and distributors.
Dual-core CPU Modules market research report provides data with segmentation of product, application, companies and regions. The history data 2014-2018 and forecast data 2019-2025 is studied.
Dual-core CPU Modules Market by Manufactures

  • Eurotech
  • Extreme Engineering Solutions
  • Sealevel Systems
  • TQ-Components
  • Wynmax
Market Size Split by Type

  • x86
  • x64
  • ARM
Market Size Split by Application

  • Electronics
  • Medical
  • Aerospace
  • Military
  • Others
Inquire or Share Questions If Any Before the Purchase on This Report At: https://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/pre-order-enquiry/14832769
This report includes the estimation of market size for value (million US$) and volume (K Units). Both top-down and bottom-up approaches have been used to estimate and validate the market size of Dual-core CPU Modules market, to estimate the size of various other dependent submarkets in the overall market. All percentage shares, splits, and breakdowns have been determined using secondary sources and verified primary sources.
The study objectives of this report are:

  • To study and analyze the global Dual-core CPU Modules market size (value & volume) by company, key regions, products and end user, breakdown data from 2014 to 2018, and forecast to 2025.
  • To understand the structure of Dual-core CPU Modules market by identifying its various subsegments.
  • To share detailed information about the key factors influencing the growth of the market (growth potential, opportunities, drivers, industry-specific challenges and risks).
  • Focuses on the key global Dual-core CPU Modules companies, to define, describe and analyze the sales volume, value, market share, market competition landscape and recent development.
  • To project the value and sales volume of Dual-core CPU Modules submarkets, with respect to key regions.
  • To analyze competitive developments such as expansions, agreements, new product launches, and acquisitions in the market.
In this study, the years considered to estimate the market size of Dual-core CPU Modules are as follows:
History Year: 2014-2018
Base Year: 2018
Estimated Year: 2019
Forecast Year 2019 to 2025
No. of Pages 103 || Price: $ 3500 (Single User)
Purchase Full Report Here: https://www.absolutereports.com/purchase/14832769
Detailed TOC of Global Dual-core CPU Modules Market Insights, Forecast to 2025
1 Study Coverage
1.1 Dual-core CPU Modules Product Introduction
1.2 Market Segments
1.3 Key Manufacturers Covered
1.4 Market by Type
1.5 Market by Application
1.6 Study Objectives
1.7 Years Considered
2 Executive Summary
2.1 Global Dual-core CPU Modules Market Size
2.2 Dual-core CPU Modules Growth Rate by Regions
3 Breakdown Data by Manufacturers
3.1 Dual-core CPU Modules Sales by Manufacturers
3.2 Dual-core CPU Modules Revenue by Manufacturers
3.3 Dual-core CPU Modules Price by Manufacturers
3.4 Dual-core CPU Modules Manufacturing Base Distribution, Product Types
3.5 Manufacturers Mergers & Acquisitions, Expansion Plans
4 Breakdown Data by Type
4.1 Global Dual-core CPU Modules Sales by Type
4.2 Global Dual-core CPU Modules Revenue by Type
4.3 Dual-core CPU Modules Price by Type
5 Breakdown Data by Application
5.1 Overview
5.2 Global Dual-core CPU Modules Breakdown Data by Application
6 Company Profiles
6.1 Company 1
6.2 Company 1
6.3 Company 1
6.4 Company 1
7 Future Forecast
7.1 Dual-core CPU Modules Market Forecast by Regions
7.2 Dual-core CPU Modules Market Forecast by Type
7.3 Dual-core CPU Modules Market Forecast by Application
7.4 North America Dual-core CPU Modules Forecast
7.5 Europe Dual-core CPU Modules Forecast
7.6 Asia Pacific Dual-core CPU Modules Forecast
7.7 Central & South America Dual-core CPU Modules Forecast
7.8 Middle East and Africa Dual-core CPU Modules Forecast
8 Market Opportunities, Challenges, Risks and Influences Factors Analysis
8.1 Market Opportunities and Drivers
8.2 Market Challenges
8.3 Market Risks/Restraints
8.4 Macroscopic Indicators
9 Value Chain and Sales Channels Analysis
9.1 Value Chain Analysis
9.2 Dual-core CPU Modules Customers
9.3 Sales Channels Analysis
10 Research Findings and Conclusion
11 Appendix
16.1 Research Methodology
16.1.1 Methodology/Research Approach
16.1.2 Data Source
16.2 Author Details
16.3 Disclaimer
For Detailed TOC Click Here
Contact Info:
Name: Ajay More
Email: [email protected]
Organization: Absolute Reports
Phone: +14242530807/+44203239 8187
For Other report : Foam Core Materials Market Forecasts (2019-2024) With Industry Chain Structure, Competitive Landscape, New Projects And Investment Analysis.
Urease Market, 2019-2024 by Segmentation: Based on Product, Application and Region
Clamshell Packaging Market Analysis by Size, Share, Key Drivers, Growth Opportunities and Trends 2019 – 2024
Telecom Towers Market Development, Market Trends, Key Driven Factors, Segmentation and Forecast to 2024
Omega-3 Fatty Acid Market 2019: Overview, Market by Type, by Manufacturers, Regions, Industry Analysis & Forecast by 2024
PSA Test Market 2019: Overview, Market by Type, by Manufacturers, Regions, Industry Analysis & Forecast by 2024
Car Exhaust Manifold Gasket Market Analysis, Outlook, Opportunities, Size, Share Forecast and Supply Demand 2019-2025
Carboxylic Acids Market 2019 Sales Overview, Trend, Market size, Growth Opportunities and Restraint to 2025
submitted by rasika071 to u/rasika071

“Dying to get a house?” The health outcomes of the South African low-income housing programme

“Dying to get a house?” The health outcomes of the South African low-income housing programme Lochner Marais*, Jan Cloete 1 Centre for Development Support (IB 100), University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein, South Africa article info Article history: Available online 26 February 2014 Keywords: Low-income housing Housing programmes Health outcomes abstract This paper examines the health impacts of the South African housing subsidy programme. A distinction is made between subsidised housing units, informal settlements (slums), informal housing units and formal urban areas, and the differences and similarities between the various typologies are explored. Binomial logistic and linear regressions are utilised in order to understand the relationships between the different housing typologies and health outcomes. Although subsidised housing units score better in terms of some adult and child health indicators, the binomial logistic and linear regressions show that health outcomes are more impacted by service-related factors than by housing structure. The results suggest that the housing subsidy policy framework should be reconsidered, taking into account the important role of urban services, particularly in regard to the upgrading of informal settlements. 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Introduction The link between housing and health has been firmly established in epidemiological research (Thomson & Petticrew, 2005). However, arriving at a full understanding of the causal relationships in this respect has proven to be more problematic (Bradley, Stephens, Harpham, & Cairncross, 1992; Galea & Vlahov, 2005; Thomson, Petticrew, & Morrison, 2002). Studies have noted that: “there is no widely shared consensus about the nature of the relationship between health status and domestic living conditions” (Roderick, 2006: 540) and that the “current interventions linking housing and health are woefully limited in both scope and scale” (Northridge, Sclar, & Biswas, 2003: 557). A systematic review of the literature considering the relationship between housing and health indicates that poor housing is strongly linked to poor health, giving rise to the question of whether “poor health can be improved by improving housing.” (Thomson & Petticrew, 2005: 3). A number of studies have debated this possible link between improved housing and improved health (Ambrose, 2000; Howden-Chapman et al., 2005; Krieger & Higgins, 2002; Krieger, Takaro, Song, & Weaver, 2005; Thomson, Petticrew, & Douglas, 2003; Thomson, Petticrew, & Morrison, 2009). Thomson and Petticrew (2005: 3) note that “[t]he well-established links between poor health, poor housing and poverty suggest that housing improvements in disadvantaged areas or social housing may provide a population-based strategy to improve health and reduce health inequalities”. On the other hand, some research findings indicate that improved housing increases the financial burden on households, which results in deterioration in health outcomes (Bradley et al., 1992; Krieger & Higgins, 2002). A recent paper on urban health in low-income countries argues that there is a strong “need to better understand how changes in the built environment in LMICs affect health equity” (Smit et al., 2011: 875). Since 1994, the South African government has embarked on one of the largest low-income housing programmes in the world, constructing approximately 3.3 million new housing units to date (Sexwale, 2013). Despite a substantial amount of international research and a few local case studies on health and housing, a national understanding of the potential impact of these subsidised housing units on health outcomes remains limited. This paper fills this gap by providing a national assessment of the health impacts of the South African subsidised housing programme. The intention is to provide a broad overview which can lay the foundation for more detailed and narrow assessments in the future. Housing and health: the international debate According to Roderick (2006), empirical studies show that eight main components of residential environments should be taken into consideration when examining the relationship between housing * Corresponding author. Tel./fax: þ27 514012978. E-mail addresses: [email protected], [email protected] (L. Marais), [email protected] (J. Cloete). 1 Tel.: þ27 514019111; fax: þ27 514014324. Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Habitat International journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/habitatint http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2014.01.015 0197-3975/2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Habitat International 43 (2014) 48e60 and health. Three of these aspects are relevant to this paper. First, safe drinking water, adequate sanitation and adequate refuse removal have all been associated with good health (Hardoy, Milton, & Satterthwaite, 1992). It is particularly children’s health and growth that are compromised by poor access to water and sanitation (Agarwal, Satyavada, Patra, & Kumar, 2008; Bartlett, 1999, 2010; Moe & Rheingans, 2006). The health benefits of in-house water, as opposed to public stand-pipes, have also been noted (Bradley et al., 1992). A study in Brazil found that children with access to public stand-pipe water were 4.8 times more likely to die of diarrhoea than children who had water available on their stand (Bradley et al., 1992). Similarly, research in urban slums in India showed that better-serviced slums had lower levels of child mortality and morbidity (Agarwal & Taneja, 2005), while slums were worse off than formal urban areas (Agarwal, 2011). In Kenya, slum areas had even worse mortality and morbidity figures than rural areas (African Population and Health Research Center, 2002). Research conducted in slums in Nairobi has shown that infant, child and under-five mortality rates are respectively 20, 65 and 35% higher than in rural Kenya (Zulu et al., 2011). Higher infant mortality resulting from inadequate water access has also been noted in Brazil (Agarwal et al., 2008; Bradley et al., 1992). In addition, the outbreak of cholera is associated with poor water access and quality (Penrose, de Castro, Werema, & Ryan, 2010). Researchers have argued that the poor health outcomes of slums-dwellers of all ages can be attributed to poor environmental and infrastructural conditions, limited access to health services and preventative healthcare, and the poor quality of health services in such areas (Zulu et al., 2011). In the last decade, researchers have started to warn about deteriorating urban infrastructure, as this could likely have a negative impact on water quality (Galea & Vlahov, 2005). Meanwhile, poor housing conditions associated with the lack of refuse removal have been linked to asthma and other chronic diseases (Krieger & Higgins, 2002). Secondly, neighbourhood atmospheric conditions and indoor air quality (closely related to ventilation) have considerable impacts on health. Three major factors in this respect are industrial pollution, fuels used for cooking and heating and crowded occupancy conditions. The relationship between indoor living conditions (especially crowding) and airborne diseases such as tuberculosis (Agarwal et al., 2008; Krieger & Higgins, 2002) and respiratory diseases such as asthma has been well established (Alder, 1995; Krieger & Higgins, 2002; O’Campo & Yonas, 2005). Cold, damp and mouldy housing conditions have also been identified as health risks (Wilkinson, 1999). Meanwhile, energy-efficiency measures have been linked with a decrease in respiratory diseases (Thomson et al., 2009), although the outcomes in this regard are not always particularly clear (Wilkinson, 1999). Indoor pollution (related to heating and cooking fuels, smoking, etc.) and outdoor pollution contribute to more than three million deaths annually, of which 90% occur in developing countries (Galea & Vlahov, 2005). Once again, the risk factor for children seems to be higher (Bartlett, 1999; Roderick, 2006), and studies have shown that upgrading housing conditions leads to fewer days of absence from school (Northridge et al., 2003). High variation in indoor temperature has also been identified as a contributing factor to morbidity and mortality (Scovronick & Armstrong, 2012). Other concerns include the high level of injuries associated with a poor living environment (Krieger & Higgins, 2002; Saegeart, Freudenberg, Cooperman-Mroczek, & Nassar, 2003; Ziraba, Kyobutungi, & Zulu, 2011) and the relationship between dampness and headaches (Krieger & Higgins, 2002). Finally, the location of settlements in relation to social institutions (such as hospitals, health clinics and schools) and the affordability of the services offered by such facilities are important considerations. Access to vaccinations serves as a proxy measure in this respect. It is especially child vaccinations which are problematic; studies in India found that 60% of poor children living in urban areas have not been vaccinated by the age of one (Agarwal et al., 2008), while vaccinations in slums in Nairobi were found to be of poorer quality than those in formal urban areas (Table 1 provides a summary of the discussion). The South African debate: housing policy and health Historical urbanisation processes in South Africa have been well documented (Mabin, 1991, 1992; Posel, 1991), and the historical context in respect of urbanisation and housing is important to understand. For the purpose of this paper, we concentrate on three historical processes which influenced urbanisation and the housing crisis and delayed the ‘epidemiological transition’ in South Africa. In the first place, influx control played a profound role from 1910. This was a deliberate attempt to prevent the movement of black South Africans (mainly Africans, but Indian and Coloured communities as well) from rural to urban areas. With the rise of the apartheid state after 1948, influx control mechanisms were tightened (Mabin, 1992), but approximately 500 000 state rental houses were provided between 1950 and 1970. Although influx control managed to limit the rate of urbanisation, it did not prevent urbanisation completely. People continued to move to urban areas legally and/or illegally, in some cases following a process of circular migration (Mabin, 1992). A second process involved the forced removals of non-white South Africans (Mabin, 1991) and in some cases, the bulldozing of informal settlements (Harrison, 1992; Platzky & Walker, 1985). Thirdly, after influx control was abolished in 1985, it was replaced by a policy of orderly urbanisation (Wolfson, 1991). In practical terms, this meant that houses were delivered mainly to higher-income groups, and very little was done to make land available to lower-income households. Consequently, large numbers of black people rented formal and informal housing in the backyards of formal stands or lodged within such households (Hendler, 1991). The above-mentioned processes had three main consequences. First, because black urbanisation was delayed, the country did not benefit from the improvements in health that go along with urbanisation. Instead, South Africa experienced an urban health penalty as people settled in informal settlements. Second, once the mechanisms used to control urbanisation could no longer be policed (by the early 1990s), informal settlements developed on a large scale across South African cities (Wolfson, 1991), further contributing to the urban health penalty. In an attempt to address the sprawl of informal settlements in urban areas, the apartheid state provided funds to the Independent Development Trust (IDT) between 1992 and 1994 to initiate a site and service programme based on a capital subsidy (R7500). Third, significant numbers of people have settled in backyards of formal households (either informally or formally). It is within this context of circular migration, increasing urbanisation, increasing settlement in backyard dwellings, extensive informal settlements and the existing capital subsidy mechanisms of the IDT that the National Housing Forum designed a new housing policy just before the political transition in 1994. This policy was by and large accepted and implemented by the new post-apartheid government (Rust & Rubenstein, 1996). A number of key debates dominated the proceedings of the National Housing Forum (see Tomlinson, 1998), of which three are worth mentioning here. The first debate revolved around who the main supplier of housing should be e the state or the private sector. The second debate was about what type of subsidy was required, while the third centred on the size of the housing units to be constructed (the so-called breadth versus depth debate) e a theme which has remained L. Marais, J. Cloete / Habitat International 43 (2014) 48e60 49 pivotal in the South African housing environment. The outcomes of these debates included a continuation of the capital subsidy programme (albeit at an amount of R15 000 in order to subsidise a starter home in addition to services), an emphasis on private sector involvement in the development process, and the positioning of the housing subsidy programme within the macroeconomic realities of South Africa. These debates have continued long after the inception of policy. Scholars have pointed out that South African housing policy is the result of both international and local influences e “scan globally, reinvent locally” (Gilbert, 2002) e and that inflation has played a key role in reducing the size of the end-product (Gilbert, 2004). It is noteworthy that the original debate about housing size and the level of services to be provided was a balancing act between the pressure to provide ‘something substantial’ e an idealistic target of one million units in the first five years e and the macroeconomic limits of the South African state budget (Tomlinson, 1998). It was thus not long before the housing subsidy programme was criticised for being neo-liberal, technocratic and dominated by the private sector (Huchzermeyer, 2004; Khan, 2003; Lalloo, 1999). Khan (2003) even argued that the neo-liberal tendencies had a negative impact on health (although no empirical evidence was provided). Other points of criticism of the housing policy are the fact that the policy excludes backyard dwellers (Bank, 2007) and focuses exclusively on homeownership, despite research showing the important contribution that backyard rental dwellings make to the existing housing stock in South Africa (Crankshaw, Gilbert, & Morris, 2000). Issues related to health have received little attention in these debates, but the notion of health was prominently captured in the 1994 White Paper on Housing through phrases such as “healthy environment”, “health standards” and “the need to ensure basic health” (Department of Housing, 1994). There is a considerable body of research since the early 1990s that has focused on housing policy and informal settlements (Huchzermeyer & Karam, 2006; Khan & Thring, 2003; Marais & Ntema, 2013), but the amount of work on housing and health in South Africa remains small. This is starting to change, although there are still very few South African studies which relate the housing subsidy programme with other housing typologies. The available academic research (excluding Masters and Ph.D. theses) focuses on housing conditions and public health in general (Mathee, 2011; Thomas et al., 1999); the importance of infrastructure services, especially considering the HIV/AIDS pandemic in South Africa (Ambert, 2006; Letsoala, 2001; Vearey, Palmary, Thomas, Nunez, & Drimie, 2010); health in informal settlements e often compared with formal housing (De Wet, Plagerson, & Harpham, 2011; Shortt & Hammond, 2013); in-house housing temperatures (Scovronick & Armstrong, 2012); indoor air quality and health (Norman, Barnes, Mathee, & Bradshaw, 2007; Rollin, Mathee, Bruce, Levin, & Von Schirnding, 2004); lead exposure (Naicker, Richter, Mathee, Becker, & Norris, 2012); and housing conditions and mental health (Marais et al., 2013; Thomas, 2006). A small but wide-ranging body of post-graduate work has also focused on housing and health, with informal settlements being a Table 1 Framework for the analysis in the paper. Framework element Approach Housing and socio-economic indicators Health indicators Adults (the respondent) Children (interview conducted with a child younger than 15) The provision of water, adequate sanitation and adequate refuse removal - Compare housing attributes across different housing typologies with the health outcomes - Linear regressions; binomial logistic regressions - Housing and settlement typologies/Nature of housing structure - Socio-economic indicators (gender, hunger, age and availability of a fridge) - Nature of water access (including distance to water) - Access to sanitation - Toilet facility shared - Access to refuse removal - Household income/ expenditure - Levels of hunger amongst adults/children - Fridge available Last 30 days: Flu; fever; vomiting; persistent cough; cough with blood; diarrhoea; rash; skin disorders; eye infection; yellow eyes - Infant mortality (total and for women younger than 48) - Child mortality (total and for women younger than 48) - % of Children stunted - % of Children overweight - % of Children underweight - Standard numeracy score Relationship between neighbourhood atmospheric conditions and indoor air quality (closely related to ventilation) has considerable impacts on health - Compare housing attributes across different housing typologies with the health outcomes - Linear regressions; binomial logistic regressions - Housing and settlement typologies/nature of housing structure - Socio-economic indicators (gender, hunger, age and availability of a fridge) - Energy used for heating - Energy used for cooking - Housing density (average number of rooms per house/ average number of people per room) - Levels of hunger amongst adults/children - Fridge available Last 30 days: Persistent cough; body ache; headache; serious injury Diagnosed with x in the last five years: TB Asthma Occupancy conditions are closely related to airborne infections as well as to the likelihood of domestic accidents Location of settlements in relation to social amenities and affordability Compare access to health services across different typologies - Housing and settlement typologies/nature of housing structure - Children born in hospital - Children with birth certificate - Children born in the presence of a doctor - Children born in the presence of a nurse - Children with clinic card 50 L. Marais, J. Cloete / Habitat International 43 (2014) 48e60 common theme. More specifically, this post-graduate work has focused on HIV/AIDS and TB (Jacobs, 2005; Nyembe, 2001; Sesing, 2002); general health status and needs assessments in informal settlements (Mdlalose, 2004; Sikhutshwa, 2000; Van Wyk, 2008); health and malnutrition (Mncube, 2003); respiratory disease (Makene, 2008); water quality and health (Bokako, 2000; Lucas, 2009); health risks associated with kerosene use (Muller, 2002); psychiatric disorders (Robertson, 1994); physical activity (Mncube, 2003; Tshabangu, 1999); medicine use or prescription patterns (Shingwenyana, 2001); and the polio virus (Rautenbach, 1997). Other urban aspects related to health that have been researched are backyard dwellings (Govender, 2011) and hostels (Kiangi, 1998), while the concepts of marginal urban areas and low-income settlements are used to conceptualise different forms of urbanity (Seedat, 2001). Govender, Barnes, and Pieper (2011) have also related poor health in subsidised housing units to poor planning. One key policy aspect that receives constant attention is the size of the actual housing product being delivered. As noted by Charlton and Kihato (2006: 266), “the introduction of the ‘norms and standards’ in 1999 placed increasing focus on improving the quality of the top-structure or house. Ironically this resulted in a compromise on the service levels.” It should be noted, though, that some municipalities have continued to provide the required urban infrastructure even after the norms and standards increased in 1999. Some researchers have argued that the emphasis on macroeconomic stability limited the size of the subsidy, resulting in homes that are small (between 24 m2 and 40 m2 ), and according to some, inadequate (Khan, 2003). A few final points of criticism of South Africa’s housing policy come from housing researcher Marie Huchzermeyer. Firstly, she notes that housing subsidy units are usually located on the periphery of urban areas, resulting in poor access to urban amenities such as medical services (Huchzermeyer, 2004). Secondly, although a new informal settlement upgrading instrument was accepted in the mid-2000s (Huchzermeyer, 2006), marking an acceptance of incremental upgrading of informal settlements (including backyard dwellings), the latest tendencies suggest that the focus has now shifted towards an over-emphasis on “eradication”, “elimination” and “zero tolerance”, all of which are commonly used to displace people (Huchzermeyer, 2010). In conclusion, there are five main lessons that can be drawn from the existing work on housing and health outcomes in South Africa. Results are (1) mainly inconclusive (as is the case internationally), (2) based on self-reporting, and (3) often contradictory; (4) age plays perhaps the most important role in respect of the health profile of a population, and (5) informal settlements are a common area of investigation, with limited reference made to backyard dwellings, hostels and other urban typologies. In terms of the focus of this paper, no literature was found that specifically investigates the health impacts of either the housing subsidy programme overall or the new policy direction of providing bigger homes with less infrastructure services. It is to this aspect that the paper now turns. Methods This paper is a cross-sectional analysis of data collected during the National Income Dynamics Study (NiDS). Conducted by the Southern Africa Labour Development and Research Unit at the University of Cape Town, the NiDS is a panel study of South African households that focused primarily on household and individual livelihood but also covered a range of socio-economic issues. The study consisted of approximately 16 500 adults (aged 15 and older) and 9500 children (under 15 years of age) in 7300 households. Statistics South Africa collected the data using a stratified, twostage cluster sample design. Although the study is repeated biennially, with surveys having been conducted in 2008, 2010 and 2012 (for more information see Leibbrandt, Woolard, & De Villiers, 2009), this paper makes use of only the data collected in 2008. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), Version 20 was used for modelling. Taking into consideration the four elements discussed in the literature review, this paper utilises two approaches and a range of indicators. In the first place, five typologies (representing overlapping groupings of common housing situations with varying housing unit, settlement and service characteristics) are discussed and compared through a process of cross-tabulation in terms of socioeconomic characteristics and health outcomes. The following settlement typologies were analysed (see Tables 2 and 3): (1) subsidised housing e housing units constructed through the subsidy programme within the ambit of formal urban town-planning Table 2 Profile of the housing, settlement and services conditions for the various typologies in South Africa, 2008. Housing characteristics Subsidised housing Informal settlement Informal housing Formal settlement (%) South Africa (%) Total (%) Makene, C. (2008). Housing-related risk factors for respiratory disease in low cost housing settlements in Johannesburg, South Africa (Unpublished master’s dissertation). Johannesburg: University of the Witwatersrand. Marais, L., & Ntema, J. (2013). The upgrading of an informal settlement in South Africa: twenty years onwards. Habitat International, 39, 85e95. Marais, L., Sharp, C., Pappin, M., Lenka, M., Cloete, J., Skinner, D., et al. (2013). Housing conditions andmental health of orphansin South Africa.Health and Place, 24, 23e29. Mathee, A. (2011). Environment and health in South Africa: gains, losses, and opportunities. Journal of Public Health Policy, 32, S37eS43. Mdlalose, M. (2004). Health needs assessment study in Doornkop informal settlement (Unpublished master’s dissertation). Johannesburg: University of the Witwatersrand. Mncube, A. (2003). Physical activity and health profiles of adult black men living in urban informal settlements (Unpublished master’s dissertation). Pretoria: University of Pretoria. Moe, C., & Rheingans, D. (2006). Global challenges in water, sanitation and health. Journal of Water and Health, 4(Suppl.), 41e57. Muller, E. (2002). Quantification of the human health risks associated with kerosene use in the informal settlement of Cato Manor, Durban (Unpublished master’s dissertation). Durban: University of Natal. Naicker, N., Richter, L., Mathee, A., Becker, P., & Norris, S. (2012). Environmental lead exposure and socio-behavioural adjustment in the early teens: the birth to twenty cohort. Science of the Total Environment, 414, 120e125. Norman, R., Barnes, B., Mathee, A., & Bradshaw, D. (2007). Estimating the burden of disease attributable to indoor air pollution from household use of solid fuels in South Africa in 2000. South African Medical Journal, 97(8), 764e771. Northridge, M., Sclar, D., & Biswas, P. (2003). Sorting out connections between the built environment and health: a conceptual framework for navigating pathways and planning healthy cities. 80(4), 556e568. Nyembe, L. (2001). An investigation into home-based care as a continuum of the comprehensive health care provision for people living with AIDS at Umlazi and its informal settlements in health region F of KwaZulu-Natal (Unpublished master’s dissertation). Durban: University of KwaZulu-Natal. O’Campo, P., & Yonas, M. (2005). Health of economically deprived populations in cities. In S. Galea, & D. Vlahov (Eds.), Urban health handbook. Populations, methods and practice (pp. 43e62). New York: Springer. Penrose, K., de Castro, M., Werema, J., & Ryan, E. (2010). Informal urban settlements and cholera risk in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A compendium on health of urban poor in Africa. New Delhi: Urban Health Resource Center. Platzky, L., & Walker, C. (1985). The surplus people: Forced removals in South Africa. Johannesburg: Ravan Press. Posel, D. (1991). Curbing African urbanization in the 1950 and 1960s. In M. Swilling, R. Humphries, & K. Shubane (Eds.), Apartheid city in transition (pp. 19e32). Cape Town: Oxford University Press. Rautenbach, P. d. (1997). An overview of environmental monitoring for polio-virus with an application in an informal settlement area (Unpublished master’s degree). Pretoria: University of Pretoria. Robertson, B. (1994). Psychiatric disorder in Africa children and adolescents in an informal settlement area, Khayelitsha (Unpublished master’s dissertation). Cape Town: University of Cape Town. Roderick, J. (2006). Housing and health: beyond disciplinary confinement. Journal of Urban Health, 83(3), 540e548. Rollin, H., Mathee, A., Bruce, N., Levin, J., & Von Schirnding, J. (2004). Comparison of indoor air quality in electrified and un-electrified dwellings in rural South African villages. Indoor Air, 14, 208e216. Rust, K., & Rubenstein, S. (1996). A mandate to build: Developing consensus around a national housing policy in South Africa. Johannesburg: Ravan Press. Saegeart, S., Freudenberg, N., Cooperman-Mroczek, J., & Nassar, S. (2003). Healthy housing, a structured review of published evaluations of US interventions to improve health by modifying health in the United States, 1990e2001. American Journal of Public Health, 93(3), 1471e1477. Scovronick, N., & Armstrong, B. (2012). The impact of housing type on temperaturerelated mortality in South Africa. 113, 46e51. Seedat, M. (2001). Best practices for injury prevention in low-income South African settlements (Unpublished master’s dissertation). Pretoria: University of South Africa. Sesing, Y. (2002). An investigation into TB and its relationship with HIV/AIDS in the informal settlement of Joubertina (Unpublished master’s dissertation). Pretoria: University of South Africa. Sexwale, T. (22 May 2013). Human settlements budget speech by Minister Tokyo Sexwale to the National Assembly. Shingwenyana, N. (2001). Prescribing patterns for patients attending a health centre in an informal urban settlement in Gauteng for the period March 2003 to June 2003 (Unpublished master’s dissertation). Johannesburg: University of the Witwatersrand. Shortt, N., & Hammond, D. (2013). Housing and health in an informal settlement upgrade in Cape Town, South Africa. Journal of Housing and the Built Environment. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10901-013-9347-4. Sikhutshwa, N. (2000). The impact of informal settlements on the health status of the residents at Holomisa Camp (Unpublished master’s dissertation). Ulundi: University of Zululand. Smit, W., Hancock, T., Kumaresen, J., Santos-Burgoa, C., Sánchez-Kobashi Meneses, R., & Friel, S. (2011). Toward a research and action agenda on urban planning/design and health equity in cities in low and middle-income countries. Journal for Urban Health, 88(5), 875e885. Thomas, E. (2006).
submitted by Thenateo to forsen

0 thoughts on “Need for speed pro street patch 1.0

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *